2010年7月26日 星期一

Wish和hope用法的分別

經常看到同學在用英文說「希望」時,混淆了hope和wish兩個字。這一課就讓我們學習一下。

Hope的用法比較簡單直接,凡是我們希望某事發生,即可使用hope。Hope後面接that子句,但that字本身自然可省略。如:
I hope (that) I’ll pass the test. 我希望考試及格。
Mary hoped (that) she wouldn’t be late for school. 那時, Mary希望不會遲到。
注意第二句是過去式,助動詞(modal verb)要用would,和前面的動詞hoped相配,不能用will。

至於wish,用法則比較複雜,以下讓我們逐一解說。
最常見的用法,是「祝福」,句式是wish + object + (adjective) noun
如:
I wish you good luck. 祝你好運
He wished her every success. 他祝福她事事順利
They wished me a pleasant journey. 他們祝我旅程愉快
當然還有聖誕節必不可少的We wish you a merry Xmas.
Wish後面不接that子句,所以我們不能說I wish (that) he has a happy New Year. 這句必須改為I wish him a happy New Year. ──這是最常見的錯誤了!


Wish 也可以解希望,但用法跟hope絕對不用,因為hope是說希望某事發生,說時尚時知道;相反wish是指但願某事已發生或沒發生,說時事情已發生了,而且事與願違。
例如上面說了I hope that I’ll pass the test. 結果,考試「肥佬」,願望落空。這時我們多數會說:如果合格就好了!(但事實卻不是)
英文是:I wish I had passed the test. (But I didn't)
注意,這句式屬於虛擬語句(subjunctive mood),說時要注意動詞變化,表示狀態的verb to be (is, am, are),一則改成were (用was也可以,但不正規);如一般動詞,因已是過去的事情,所以一律改成過去完成式。以下舉些例子:

I wish (that) I were you. 如果我是你就好了。
I wish it were finished. 現在完了多好。(事實上卻未完)
I wish I weren't late. 我沒遲到就好了!
I wished I hadn’t been late. 我那時沒遲到就好了!
I wish you hadn’t stolen the money. 我多希望你沒有偷錢啊!(事實上偷了)
Mary wished she had have a baby. Mary多希望那時生個孩子!
這個虛擬的wish,也可以用if only表達,例如If only I were you.

Wish的另一意思是想/要,後面要接to + infinitive,其實和want分別不大,但沒有want那麼隨便。如:
Study harder if you wish to get better grades. 想學業進步,你就要更努力學習。

14 則留言:

  1. 版大您好
    看完你這篇文章後
    我有如下一問
    "這樣用對嗎?"

    1. I wished I had had been there.

    這跟I wished I had been there.

    2.這是考卷上看到的句子:
    Uneasy as Jimmy and John felt with their father's changed attitude, they both learned that they were not grown-up enough and sincerely wished that they had had before father's revolution.

    (1) 上述句字疑似在had had之後有省略
    可以幫我將它還原嗎?
    (2) 在這裡用 had had 很怪...不能用had就好了嗎?


    抱歉
    想再問一下
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